Abdulrazzak H 1 , De Coppi P, Guillot PV.
Human amniotic fluid cells have been used traditionally as a diagnostic tool for genetic anomalies. More recently it has been recognized that amniotic
fluid contains populations of stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (AFMSC) were first to be described. These cells are able to differentiate towards
mesodermal lineages. More recently cells with broader potential, defined as amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSC), were also isolated. They have
intermediate characteristics between embryonic and adult stem cells and are able to differentiate into lineages representative of all three germ layers
but unlike ES cells they do not form tumours in vivo. Furthermore, AFSC have been reverted to functional pluripotency in a transgene-free approach
using an epigenetics modifier. These characteristics, together with absence of ethical issues concerning their employment, have made stem cells from
amniotic fluid a promising candidate for cell therapy and tissue engineering.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Human mid-trimester amniotic fluid stem cells cultured under embryonic stem
cell conditions with valproic acid acquire pluripotent characteristics.
Moschidou D, Mukherjee S, Blundell MP, Jones GN, Atala AJ, Thrasher AJ, Fisk NM,
De Coppi P, Guillot PV.Stem Cells Dev. 2013 Feb 1; 22(3):444-58. Epub 2012 Nov